Analysis of Kombucha Ferment
I’ll be using some of Danny the Happy herbalists (http://www.happyherbalist.com/index.asp) stuff (thanks Danny!) here and add some of my own in order to help users rest assure that Ktea is indeed safe and healthy.
SCOBY is a short name given to the mushroom by most users now (I still like to call my babies and mother mushrooms). SCOBY is short for (Symbiotic Culture OF Bacteria and Yeast), which makes it a bit more scientific.
The Kombucha SCOBY is a living complex.
a probiotic of life's energy.
pro = in favor of, biotic = life as opposed to antibiotic; anti = against: antibiotics literally means against life.
Symbiotic Culture of Bacteria and Yeasts:
typical composition include:
Bacterium gluconicum, Bacterium xylinum, Acetobacter xylinum, Acetobacter xylinoides
Acetobacter Ketogenum, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, Saccharomycodes apiculatus
Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Zygosaccharomyes, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Acetic acid, Acetoacetic acid, Benzoic acid, propenyl ester, Benzonitrile
Butanoic acid, Caffeine, Citric acid, Cyanocobalamin, Decanoic acid, Ethyl Acetate
Fructose, d-Gluconic acid, Glucose, Hexanoic acid, Itaconic acid
2-Keto-gluconic acid, 5-Keto-gluconic acid, 2-Keto-3-deoxy-gluconic acid
Lactic acid, Niacinamide, Nicotinic acid, Pantothenic acid, Phenethyl Alcohol
Phenol, 4-ethyl, 6-Phospho gluconate, Propionic acid, Octanoic acid, Oxalic acid
Riboflavin, d-Saccharic acid, (Glucaric acid), Succinic acid, Thiamin
plus40 other acid esters in trace amounts
As you can see it is a long list and there are vitamins of the B family in there in many forms including Nicotinic acid(C6H6NO2) which is Niacin, a water soluble vitamin very essential in lowering the LDL(bad cholesterol) levels amongst other things.
I have been asked about the sugar content of the Ktea (Kombucha tea). I can say that with my way of fermentation (2 weeks minimum) there is hardly enough to mention. Here is what Danny the happy herbalist says:
“Average Analysis of the Kombucha;
some ferments have more, less or none of them. results do vary.
Much of this depends upon brewing time, temperature, sugar and tea contents;
a average 4 ounce (120 ml) daily dose may average NO Sodium, NO Protein, and 8 grams of sugar (as fructose) and 8 grams carbohydrates. Alcohol content depends upon length of brewing and averages (8 days) less than 1/2 of 1% (about the same as fresh squeezed orange juice). A longer brew time (14 days) reduces the sugar content and alcohol content considerably although the taste moves from sweet to sour. Of course, type and amount of tea, brewing time, temperature and humidity will produce different results: Test results for various strains can be read at: http://users.argolink.net/purfarms/komchem/teacaff.htm
Combination of yeasts and bacteria Acetobacter xylinum, Saccharomyces yeast, B1(thiamine) B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (Pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine ), B15 (pangamic acid), Biotin (Folic Acid), Choline, Inositol, PABA (para-amino benzoic acid) , RNA (ribonucleic acid). Acetamidophenol, Acetic acid, Acetoacetic, acid, Benzoic acid, 2-amino-, 3-phenyl-2-propenyl ester Benzonitrile, 4-hydroxy-2(4H)-Benzofuranone, 5,6,7,7 a-tetrahydro-4,4,7 a-trimethyl-2,6-Bis(t-butyl) -4-(dimethylbenzyl) phenol Butanoic acid, 3-methyl 1-Butanol, 3-methyl- 2-t-Butyl-4-(dimethylbenzyl) phenol, Caffeine, Citric acid, Cyanocobalamin (B-12), Decanoic acid, D-Ribo-hexos, 2,6-dideoxy-3-0-methyl-, 2,3-Dihydro-1-methylindene, 2,5 Diketo-gluconic acid, thyl Acetate Fructose, d-Gluconic acid, Glucose, Hexanoic acid, (1H)Imidazo[2,1-f]purine-2,4(3H,8H)-dione, 8-ethyl-1-methyl-7-phenyl- Itaconic acid, 2-Keto-gluconic acid, 5-Keto-gluconic acid, 2-Keto -3-deoxy-gluconic acid, Lactic acid, 5-Methoxy-1- (3-methoxy-4-methylphenyl) -1,3,3,6- tetramethylindan, Malic Acid, Niacinamide,
In Michael Roussin's "Analyses of Kombucha Ferments," he reports most ferments contain an analgesic, an anti-arthritic compound, an anti-spasmodic compound, hematinic and counteractions for hepatotoxins, some anti-fungal, and several anti-microbial / anti-bacterial compounds. They also contain enzyme inhibitors of glucuronidase, heparinase, hyaluronidase, and monoamine oxidase. But what is in a ferment is not universal - except for gluconic acid, fructose, and acetic acid.
research article avail be online: www.kombuca-ressearch.com
Determination and characterization of the anti-microbial activity of the fermented tea Kombucha
C.J. Greenwalt, R.A. Ledford, and K.H. Steinkraus”
Caffeine content of the Ktea has been also a concern by some new users (us old timers don’t think about that stuff). I will include a table or two noting the amounts in most liquids we know of. Ktea’s caffeine contents will vary from brew to brew and the tea used. It is reduced in fermentation as a chemical reaction by at least 25%(about 147mg/litre). But I still say if we put the benefits next to these minor counts, there is nothing to be concerned about. Remember the benefits of the Ktea such the antibacterial effects of any fermented brew(vinegars) are still not appreciated as they aught to be.
In 4 ounces of liquid:
Coffee (brewed) 60-160 mg
Coffee (decaf) 1-5 mg
Soft drinks 40-70 mg (higher in new energy drinks and Mountain dew)
Black Tea 20-90mg
Oolong Tea 10-45 mg
Green Tea 6-30 mg
Tea (instant or iced) 10-45 mg
Chocolate (per ounce) 1-15 mg
Hot Chocolate 2-20 mg
WHAT HAS IT BEEN USED FOR:
FORGET about it! It is far too long of a list. Let me just say that 4 ounces a day (especially 1st thing in the morning on empty stomach) mixed with a citrus and Ginger brew can be as beneficial as 2 pounds of medicine you’d need otherwise for what this miracle tea prevents. Say Arthritis, blood pressure, toxicity, bowel problems, prevention of colon cancer, joint health, weight loss, all around general good feeling of optimum health.
Here is a quick brew guide from Danny the happy herbalist (thanks again!)
as a guide maintain these ratios to the volume of water
(one quart water/3 ounces sugar/3 grams tea)
you must always have at least 10-20% of a previously brewed kombucha tea that is sufficiently sour (>3.0 pH). You may therefore add up to 90% fresh sugar & tea and begin drinking as soon as it properly ages. Typically 25% every 2-3 days
water one quart (1 litre) of water
sugar 1/4 cup sugar (70-100 grams, or 2-3 ounces)
tea 3-5 grams, 2/10 ounce, or 2-3 t-bags, or 1 heaping teaspoon, or personal preference.
Do not over boil. Over boiling reduces the oxygen and carbon dioxide needed for fermenting kombucha. The purpose is to heat the water sufficiently to extract the tea and dissolve the sugar. We recommend using only good pure water. NOT tap or well water
steep for recommended time dependent upon tea. Remove t-bags. Some people only seep their tea for a few minutes others allow it to stay over night. Many people choose their tea based upon the medicinal value of the tea. Research indicates Pu-erh Tea is beneficial in intestinal disorders. White Tea is higher in anti-oxidants. Rooibos caffeine free. Black tea is traditional KT.
Do not boil longer than 5 minutes. Longer may "caramelize" the sugar. see information of different sugars
When the solution has cooled add to the Fermenting Container.